## Theorem 6.3.6: Discontinuities of Monotone Functions |

If |

Suppose, without loss of generality, that f is monotone increasing,
and has a discontinuity at x_{0}.
Take any sequence x_{n} that converges to x_{0}from
the left, i.e. x_{n}
x_{0}.
Then f( x_{n}) is a
monotone increasing sequence of numbers that is bounded above
by f( x_{0}). Therefore,
it must have a limit. Since this is true for every sequence, the
limit of f(x) as x approaches x_{0} from
the left exists. The same prove works for limits from the right.

**Note:** This proof is actually not quite correct. Can you
see the mistake ? Is it really true that if x_{n} converges
to x_{0}from the left
then f( x_{n}) is necessarily
increasing ? Can you fix the proof so that it is correct ?

As for the second statement, we again assume without loss of generality that f is monotone increasing. Define, at any point c, the jump of f at x = c as:

- j(c) = f(x) - f(x)

Note that j(c) is well-defined, since both one-sided limits exist by the first part of the theorem. Since f is increasing, the jumps j(c) are all non-negative. Note that the sum of all jumps can not exceed the number f(b) - f(a). Now let J(n) be the set of all jumps c where j(c) is greater than 1/n., and let J be the set of all jumps of the function in the interval [a, b]. Since the sum of jumps must be smaller than f(b) - f(a), the set J(n) is finite for all n. But then, since the union of all sets J(n) gives the set J, the number of jumps is a countable union of finite sets, and is thus countable.