Xue-Ming Bao


Xue-Ming Bao, M.L.S., Ed.D.
Electronic Resources Librarian
Associate Professor
Liaison to Asian Studies
Chinese Corner Contact
Seton Hall University Library
South Orange, New Jersey 07079-2671
Tel: (973) 275-2399 (W)
Fax: (973) 275-9432 (W)
Home Page:


Northern Illinois University (NIU), DeKalb, Illinois

University of Victoria, Victoria, B.C., Canada

East China Normal University (ECNU), Shanghai, China


Seton Hall University, University Library, September 1997 -
South Orange, New Jersey

Belleville Public Library & Information Center
Belleville, New Jersey

Berkeley Colleges, 1994 - 1997
West Paterson, New Jersey

Paterson Free Public Library, 1991 - 1994
Paterson, New Jersey





a. Refereed publications

Bao, X. M. (2009). Library open 24/7: A Study of User Needs and Library Management Concerns. Chinese Journal of Library and Information Science, 2 (1), 19-39. (Full-text URL
Facing competition from Web-based information service development, academic librarians need to find ways to attract more users to the physical library buildings. This study investigated user needs and library management concerns for a 24/7 service through two surveys: 1) User feedback survey at Seton Hall University Library, and 2) Survey of Academic Library Deans and Directors in the USA. Based on these two surveys, the paper not only discussed the current status of libraries open 24/7 in the USA and showed the demographics of users of the 24/7 service at Seton Hall University, it also stated reasons to use the 24/7 service. In addition, the paper revealed library management concerns of the 24/7 service. Three implications, which have been guided by Scott Bennett’s theory of learning commons for planning library space, were drawn from the findings in this paper.

Bao, X. M. (2003). A Study of Web-Based Interactive Reference Services via Academic Library Home Pages. Reference & User Services Quarterly, 42 (3), 250-256. (Full-text URL
This study addresses the strategic issue of access and policy in developing web-based interactive reference services via academic library home pages. It examines the current status of web-based interactive reference services in the U.S.A. through a national survey. The study finds that less than one-half of the surveyed institutions (67 of 143 or 46.9%) use web-based interactive reference as an extension of their traditional reference services. Web-based interactive reference services are primarily used to provide brief factual information, basic guidance in conducting library research on a topic, and answer questions about library resources, services, policies, procedures, and facilities.

Bao, X. M. (2002). A Comparative Study of Library Surveys of Internet Users at Seton Hall University in 1998 and 2001. College & Research Libraries, 63 (3), 251-259. (Full-text URL
This article compares the data collected in library surveys of Internet users at Seton Hall University in both 1998 and 2001. The aim of the comparison is to provide information on the changes of library users in their Internet use behavior, satisfaction levels, and problems in using the Internet. The response distribution of the people in different categories represents the population of Seton Hall University in approximate proportions in both 1998 and 2001 surveys. The article discusses the challenges that were met with visible, moderate, and no improvements. It points out what remains to be the major challenge for librarians.

Bao, X. M. (2001). From 'Book Collection House' to Open Library: New Impression of Public Libraries in Shanghai, China. Public Library Quarterly, 19 (2), 25-35. (Full-text URL
Shanghai public libraries have experienced rapid development in the last ten years. The city has a network of four levels of public libraries with the Shanghai Library as a world-class model. Shanghai's district/county and street neighborhood/township public libraries, and residential community/village reading rooms play an important role in reaching out to the people. The "Book Collection House" mindset of library professionals has been transformed to that of professionals who believe in user-centered and service-oriented open libraries.

Bao, X. M. (2000). An Analysis of the Research Areas of the Articles Published in C&RL and JAL between 1990 and 1999. College & Research Libraries, 61 (6), 536-544. (Full-text URL
A total of 682 refereed articles from College & Research Libraries (C&RL)(376) and Journal of Academic Librarianship (JAL)(306) between 1990 and 1999 were analyzed with respect to the Research Agenda outlined by the ACRL-CLS. The analysis finds that articles on collections, services, staffing, and the Internet have taken up the major portion of the peer-reviewed sections of C&RL and JAL. The findings reveal that a wide variety of researchable questions remain to be studied and reported. This presents a challenge and opportunity for academic librarians who wish to engage in research.

Bao, X. M. (2000). Academic Library Home Pages: Link Location and Database Provision. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 26 (3), 191-195. (Full-text URL
This article reports the findings of a survey of 143 home pages of academe and their library home pages. Librarians should advocate for a library home page link on the first page of their parent institution's home page and provide online databases and free Internet resources through the library's home page.

Bao, X. M. (1999). Tuning Up Your Web Site: An Overview of Two Free Web Site Diagnostic Tools. Information Technology and Libraries, 18 (2), 96-100. (Full-text URL
This article provides an overview of two free Web site diagnostic services provided by Web Site Garage and NetMechanic. Both services provide no cost link check, HTML check, and image byte size reduction. Web Site Garage offers a unique link popularity check, whereas NetMechanic offers a unique server check. The article illustrates with an example of how the Seton Hall University Library Webmaster has used these two Web site diagnostic tools. The paper concludes that Web Site Garage and NetMechanic are effective tools that are easy and efficient for maintaining a Web site.

Bao, X. M. (1999). A Phenomenology of Teaching with Laptop Computers: A Case Study through the Eyes of a Trainer. In Hans E. Klein (Ed), Interactive Teaching & the Multi Media Revolution: Case Method and Other Techniques (pp. 43-52). Needhan (Boston), MA: the World Association for Case method Research & Case Method Application. (Full-text URL
Teaching with laptop computers (or laptops) is a new phenomenon in educational institutions. A review of the literature shows that laptops are being used as a learning tool from the perspective of how learners use laptops rather than how a trainer uses a laptop as a teaching presentation medium. This research project is the first phenomenological case study on teaching with a laptop from a trainer's perspective; this offers new implications of teaching with laptops and attempts to understand the teaching and learning process when using laptops.

Bao, X. M. (1998). Challenges and Opportunities: A Report of the 1998 Library Survey of Internet Users at Seton Hall University. College & Research Libraries, 59 (6), 535-543. (Full-text URL
This survey aims to collect data to enable Seton Hall University librarian faculty and administration to analyze user satisfaction with information services provided through the Internet's World Wide Web. Seton Hall faculty and students completed 786 questionnaires. About 80% of the respondents reported that they used the World Wide Web on a daily or weekly basis. The results reveal valuable information about the Internet users' search strategies and their levels of satisfaction in using the World Wide Web. Analysis of the data suggests three challenges for academic librarians and five opportunities in providing Internet information services.

b. Other professional publications

Bao, X.M. (2005). The National Science and Technology Library: A Chinese Model of Collaboration. Issues in Science & Technology Librarianship, Summer. (Full-text URL
As an exchange librarian, the author visited the Library of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and other major libraries in Beijing, China for two weeks in May 2004. This article describes the NSTL, a virtual library created through the collaboration of major national level libraries and information research institutions, based on the knowledge gained from talking with the NSTL staff in Beijing and on exploring the NSTL web site (

Bao, X.M. (2001). A Comparative Study of Public Libraries in China and the U.S.A. Library and Information Service, (A Journal of Academia Sinica in Beijing, China), 279 (2), 10-12 & 79. (Full-text URL
This article compares the public libraries in China and the U.S.A. from three perspectives: 1) the areas in which the public libraries in China are doing better than that in the U.S.A., 2) the areas in which the public libraries of the two countries are doing similar activities, and 3) the areas in which the public libraries of the two countries are doing things differently. Through comparisons, Chinese librarians may gain an objective understanding of the achievements and problems of the public libraries in China in recent years. Also, they may learn about the public libraries in the U.S.A.

Bao, X. M. (2001). Comparisons of Faculty Publication between Library/Archival Sciences and Other Academic Fields in the United States of America. Indian Journal of Library and Information Science, 1 (2), 67-74. (Full-text URL
This study compares three types of faculty publication: a) articles in refereed professional or trade journals, b) reviews of books, articles, or creative works, c) monographs, books, textbooks or chapters in edited volumes between faculty in library and archival sciences and faculty in other academic fields. The findings reflect an unique characteristic of the librarian profession as information evaluator, selector, and provider. The study shows that more faculty members in library and archival sciences should become more involved in publishing articles in refereed professional or trade journals.

Kalyan, S., Bao, X. M. & Deyrup, M. (2001). Academic Libraries' Emergency Plans for Inclement Weather. Library Administration & Management, 15 (4), 223-229. (Full-text URL (Received the Research Award for the outstanding contribution of research published by a New Jersey librarian from the College and University Section of the New Jersey Library Association, April 11, 2002)
Information was elicited from nearly 400 library deans and directors at academic institutions across the U.S. as to their institutional procedures for library closings due to inclement weather. Statistical breakouts of institutional characteristics (enrollment, composition of the student body, geographical location, and type of institutions), availability of emergency plans, decision-making for library emergency closing, methods of informing the employees, services provided in case of inclement weather and so on are presented in the form of tables. The study recommends some common guidelines for the academic library community and ideas for further research on this topic.

Bao, X. M. (1999). Resource Sharing: An Introduction to the Interlibrary Loan in the United States of America. Library and Information Service (A Journal of Academia Sinica in Beijing, China; Language: Chinese), 256 (3), 59-61 & 14. (Full-text URL
This article identifies and discusses three characteristics of the interlibrary loan in the United States of America, including: (1) establishing national standards of interlibrary loan; (2) establishing nationwide online library networks; and (3) establishing multi-level, multi-type cooperative interlibrary loan networks.

Bao, X. M., et al. (1987). East China Normal University: training teachers at a distance. Bulletin of International Council for Distance Education, 15 (Sept.), 40 - 45. Milton Keynes, England: Open University.

Cunningham, P. M. & Bao, X. M. (1986). Book review on university adult education in England and the U.S.A., The Journal of Higher Education, 57 (6), 675 - 677.

c. Conference presentations

Bao, X. M. (2008). Exploring the New Requirements for Modern Library Buildings from the Needs of Opening 24/7 (从24小时开馆需求看 现代图书馆对建筑的要求). 2008 Sino-US Forum for Library Practices, Kunming, Yunnan, China, July 10-13, 2008, a part of the CALA 21st Century Librarian Seminar Series. Sponsors: Yunnan Provincial Commission on Academic Libraries, Kunming University of Science and Technology, and the Chinese American Librarians Association (CALA). (PowerPoint Presentation in pdf)
1. Overview of Library Construction Development in the U.S.A., 2001-2007
2. The Experience of Library Open 24/7 at Seton Hall University
3. The Perspectives of Library Deans/Directors on Library Open 24/7
4. The New Requirements for Modern Library Buildings from the User Needs for Library Open 24/7.

Bao, X. M. (2006). Turning the Pressure into a Positive Force: Going through the Promotion and Tenure Process in Academic Library Environment. CALA 2006 Conference Program, New Orleans, LA. June 25.
1.Discuss the academic environment and ACRL's guidelines for appointment, promotion and tenure of academic librarians.
2. Relate my personal experiences of going through the tenure and promotion process at Seton Hall University and how I turned the pressure into a positive force.
3. Talk about my experiences of serving on the University Library Rank and Tenure Committee to review evaluation and promotion procedures for other librarians.

Bao, X. M. (2004). A Study of Web-Based Interactive Reference Services via Academic Library Home Pages. Research Forum, Annual Spring Conference of New Jersey Library Association, April 20.

Bao, X. M. (2003). Print Management. The 2nd Technology Is IT Day Conference Sponsored by Infolink, the New Jersey Regional Library Cooperative, May 16, 2003. (PowerPoint Presentation)
1. Discuss the printing problems that academic and public libraries encounter when providing printing services for their users
2. Present the solutions that can used to resolve printing problem
3. Demonstrate a particular print management program in use at the Belleville Public Library & Information Center.

Bao, X. M. (2002). Adding Interactive Pages. The 1st Technology Is IT Day Conference Sponsored by Infolink, the New Jersey Regional Library Cooperative, May 31.
1. Describe what types of interactive pages can be created by using FrontPage 2000
2. Explain the role of a form in creating an interactive page
3. Design a form
a. Decide what kind of information to collect, and then start a form
b. Add fields to the form
c. Set data entry rules for your form fields
d. Set up how you want to handle the information you collect from the form

Bao, X. M. & Kalyan, S. (2001). Web Accessible Full-Text Databases: Essential Library Resources for Online Teaching and Learning. National Conference on Stop Surfing - Start Teaching Proceedings, 2001 (pp. 141-144). Columbia: University of South Carolina. (Full-text URL
Web accessible full-text academic databases have become essential library resources for supporting online teaching and learning. This article discusses the web accessible full-text academic databases 1) as a means to equal access for distance education and on-campus learners, and 2) as an affordable alternative to subscribing to print journals.

Kalyan, S., Bao, X. M. & Deyrup, M. (2001) Academic Libraries' Emergency Plans for Inclement Weather: A Report of Survey 2000. Research Forum, Annual Spring Conference of New Jersey Library Association, April 30.

Bao, X. M. (1999) Challenges and Opportunities: A Report of the 1998 Library Survey of Internet Users at Seton Hall University. Research Forum, Annual Spring Conference of New Jersey Library Association, April 28-30.

Bao, X. M. (1998). A phenomenology of teaching with laptop computers: A case study through the eyes of a trainer.Interactive Teaching & the Multi Media Revolution, 15th International Conference hosted by Group ESC Marseille-Provence, Marseille, France, July 9-12.

Bao, X. M. (1998). Library's Role in Support of Teaching and Learning through Web-Based Course. National Conference on Stop Surfing - Start Teaching Proceedings, (pp. 88-91). Columbia: University of South Carolina. (Full-text URL
This article addresses a central question: What is the library's role in support of teaching and learning through web-based courses on the Internet? The article consists of the following three parts:
I. What is the current status of teaching and learning through web-based courses?
II. How do students get their resources to accomplish their web-based course assignments?
III. How should libraries play their roles in support of teaching and learning through web-based courses?

Bao, X. M. (1990). A phenomenology of emergent meaning from dialectical questioning and answering in adult learning: Western and Chinese perspectives. 31st Annual Adult Education Research Conference (AERC) Proceedings, (pp. 7 - 12). Athens: University of Georgia.

Bao, X. M. (1988). A comparative study of the philosophical foundations of adult education in China and America. 1988 Trans-Atlantic Dialogue Conference Proceedings, (pp. 15 - 20). Leeds, England: University of Leeds.

Bao, X. M. (1987). Support system/administration of distance education at ECNU (abstract). Information session presenters schedule at the 3rd annual conference on teaching at a distance. Madison: University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Bao, X. M. (1986). Teaching reading in advanced English to adult Chinese students. 1986 AERC Proceedings, (pp. 1 - 6). Syracuse: Syracuse University.


a. Seton Hall University Library

Serve as Chair of Library Educational Policy Committee, 2013 - 2015.

Served as Chair of the Library Faculty Assembly, 2007 - 2009.

Served on the Library Database Page Design Committee, 2006 - 2008.

Served on the Library Database Committee, 2006 - 2010.

Served on the Library Program Review Committee, 2006.

Served on the Library LibQUAL Committee, 2006.

Served as Systems Librarian (after 2013). Responsible for 1) migraring data from Voyager's system to the new OCLC WorldShare Servies and 2) trouble shoorting issues relating to the transition to the new integrated library system.

Served as Systems/Digital Librarian (prior to 2013). Responsible for maitaining Ex Libris' Voyager for cataloging, circulation, acquisition, and reporting functions, 2) trouble shooting library staff's computer problems, 3) digitizing dissertations and theses, and 4) coordinating the electronic reserve service.

Served as the University Library Web Master. Redesigned and maintained the University Libraries' home pages.

Implemented the E-ZProxy program in collaboration with the University IT to authenticate the off-campus access of library databases by using a user's Seton Hall e-mail ID and password only, thus eliminating the need to remember too many unique database IDs and passwords.

Provided reference services to students and faculty.

Taught bibliographic instruction classes to undergraduate and graduate students.

Taught Microsoft FrontPage 98 (a home page program), Access database, and Windows 95 to librarian faculty at Walsh Library, Seton Hall University in 1997 and 1998.

Taught Microsoft PowerPoint to faculty members and students at Seton Hall University in 1997.

Served as a library consultant for graduate students for their research projects on China upon the request from the teaching faculty of Asian Studies.

Served as a consultant for a graduate student of business major to develop a survey questionnaire for his master thesis.

Guided the Chinese visiting scholars who performed their internships at Seton Hall University Library to create their own web pages.

Created an Access 2000 database and a search form with VBA (Visual Basic for Application) and SQL (Structured Query Language) to eliminate the need of manual counting of the newly catalogued books.

Created a local requisition database for the library's acquisition department to eliminate the need of using paper form of "Faculty Library Requisition" and to improve the efficiency of faculty requisition submission and processing.

Resolved the technical problems of e-Reserve project allowing students to read full-text articles reserved by their professors on online.

Resolved other two technical problems with the help of the University Computing Services:
1) e-Reserve authentication problem. For copyright reason, only Seton Hall members can open e-Reserve articles
2) Database IDs/PWs dissemination problem. Only Seton Hall members can open a special web page to view the library database IDs/PWs for off-campus access. This alleviates the burden to give out database IDs/PWs at the Reference Desk.

Made the Master Listing of Journals at Seton Hall University Library accessible through the Web by converting dBase III file format to Access format, and to HTML file format. Over 5,000 records were converted in this project in 1998.

Updated a Guide to Printed Indexes and Abstracts from a previous list dated November, 1992.

Created on online questionnaire on the Information Search Process for Freshman and English 1201/1202 upon the request of Project Director of the library CDI4 grant and provided statistical results in a timely fashion when each of the surveys in 2000 and 2001 ended.

Transformed the texts and graphics of each exhibit into web presentable format.

Served as Acting Bibliographic Instruction (BI) Coordinator from July 2000 to February 2001. With the help of librarian faculty, we taught 123 classes involving 2,449 students between July and December 2000.

Served as Chair of Library's Educational Policy Committee from July 2000 to June 2001. During my term, two policies were adopted: 1) Copyright Guideline on e-Reserve at Seton Hall University Library and 2) Interlibrary Loan (ILL) Policy.

Served on the Library's Mission Statement Task Team in 1998.

b. Belleville Public Library & Information Center

Served as Assistant Library Director in all areas of library administration between December 1994 and August 1997 including updating the library staff manual, managing the maintenance staff, appealing for the library budget in front of the township council, and writing and managing grants for implementing library's literacy and humanity programs, and for setting up a local area computer network and Internet connection.

Created and maintained an Internet Web Site at the Belleville Public Library & Information Center since June, 1996. Hosted library home pages on a Linux server and Office 2000 server.

Set up and managed a Local Area Network for CD-ROM resources and the Internet at the Belleville Public Library & Information Center since November, 1995. Performed trouble-shooting on the problems of system-wide and 45 PC workstations. Installed hardware components and software applications including TCP/IP for the Internet, Office 2000 and many more.

Created a searchable computer index database for Belleville Times, an area newspaper.

c. Paterson Free Public Library

Served as the head of Community Learning Center, and junior, senior and principal librarian between February 1991 and November 1994. Managed five to nine VISTA volunteers to implement the library's family literacy program, one-on-one tutoring program, English as a Second Language program, and computer assisted literacy tutoring program. Applied for and managed the grants from the Federal VISTA program, Department of Education (federal), New Jersey State Library (state), Bell Atlantic and American Library Association (private) to carry out the above programs. Sponsored and organized many workshops on the topics of interesting to the urban population. Published monthly newsletters of Community Learning Center. Served at the reference desk.


a. To Seton Hall University

Served as Co-Chair of Faculty Senate's IT Committee, 2015 - 2016

Served on Faculty Senate's Faculty Development Committee, 2014 - 2016

Served on Faculty Senate's Program Review Committee, 2013 - 2015

Served on Faculty Senate's IT Committee, 1998 - 2013

Served as a member on the Emerging Technologies Committee, Teaching and Learning Round Table, 2008 - 2009

Served as Faculty Senator, November 2002-June 2003, and May 2004 - April 2006

Served as Chair of University Grievance Committee, July 2005-April 2006 and a member May 2004 - April 2005

Served as Chair of the Nominations, Elections and Appointments Committee (NE&A), Faculty Senate, Seton Hall University from September 2000 to April 2001, and a member from 1997 to 2004. During my term as the NE&A Chair, we have accomplished following tasks:

Served on other university level committees including the University Research Council in 2001, and University Commencement Committee in 2002.

Served as an alternate to the University Faculty Senate, 1999-2001, 2002-2003, and 2009-2010.

Served on the Mobile Computing Curriculum and Training Task Force and the Mobile Computing Assessment Team in 1998. Provided literature search for the assessment project.

Served as an Affirmative Action Debate Series Judge at the invitation of a sociology professor for his class debate in December 2000.

b. To Profession

Serve as OPS Editor-in-Chief, 2009 - 2012. Occasional Paper Series (OPS) provides an opportunity for members of the Chinese American Librarians Association to publish a peer-reviewed article on any aspect of librarianship.

Serve on the English Editorial Board (2008-2015) of Journal of Library and Information Science (JLIS), which is published semiannually in April and October by National Taiwan Normal University, and the Chinese American Librarians Association, U.S.A. JLIS is indexed or abstracted in Index to Chinese Periodicals, Library Literature, PAIS, Information Science Abstracts, and Library & Information Science Abstracts. JLIS Web site 

Serve as Chair of CALA/Northeast Chapter Membership Committee, 2010 - 2012

Serve on the Membership Committee of Chinese American Librarians Association (CALA), 2010 - 2012

Serve on the Web Committee of Virtual Academic Library Environment (VALE), 2008 - 2011

Served on the New Jersey Library Association (NJLA)'s Personnel Administration Subcommittee, 2005 - 2006

Served on the Executive Board of Infolink (the Eastern New Jersey Library Cooperative), 2003 - 2006

Served on the NJLA's Intellectual Freedom Committee, 2003 - 2006

Served on the NJLA's Conference Committee, 2003 - 2004

Served on the NJLA's Public Relations Committee, 2001 - 2004

Served on the NJLA's Education & Leadership Subcommittee in 1998

Served on Infolink's Search Committee for its executive director in 2001

Served on other Infolink's committees including: Continuing Education and Career Development Committee from 2000 to 2003, and User Group Advisory, Planning and Electronic Doorway Libraries Committees from 1996 to1998. Served on Infolink's Task Force for the 2002 and 2003 Tech Days

Taught Microsoft PowerPoint, Access, FrontPage, Publisher, and Javascript in the workshops sponsored by Infolink, the Eastern New Jersey Regional Library Cooperative, for public, school, and academic librarians from Essex, Hudson, Middlesex and Union counties of New Jersey from 1998 to present.

Made a presentation on searching the Internet at the invitation of New Jersey Association of Library Assistants in May 25, 1999

c. To Community

Made a presentation on "Doing Business over the Internet" to Rotary Club Members of Belleville on March 31, 1999.

Made a presentation on Chinese Spring Festival to twenty 3rd grade pupils at a Springfield Public Elementary School, NJ on February 5, 1998.

Made a Speech: "Internet - A Wonder of the 20th Century" at the Belleville AARP (American Association of Retired Persons) on January 7, 1998.

Served on the Cherry Blossoms Festival Committee, Essex County, New Jersey, 1995 - 1997




Translator for Mr. Zhongda Yao, Secretary General of Chinese Adult Education Association at the executive committee meetings of International Council for Adult Education (ICAE), 1987, AAACE Conference and Kellogg Leadership Seminar, 1987.

Translator for International Council for Adult Education (ICAE)'s Shanghai International Adult Education Symposium, 1984.

Taught English as a Second Language at East China Normal University, 1979-1984.

(Last update: 11/5/2015)