A Byzantine Emperor is shown crowned, vested, and holding an orb and a staff. 


This is a gold solidus minted in Constantinople.  On the obverse (left), it shows Christ enthroned as king.  In Byzantine political theory, the emperor was the viceroy of Christ on earth.

On the reverse (right), it shows Leo VI (886-912 CE (AD), and his co-ruler, Constantine VII.  Double portraits of two emperors or an emperor and his wife appeared on Byzantine coins for over 300 years.

  Each Emperor holds an orb, symbol of the world, surmounted by a cross, symbol of Christ's rule over the world.  Together they hold a staff or scepter also surmounted by a cross.

Note that the inscription is in Latin.  The Eastern Empire considered itself the continuation of the Roman Empire and, onl in its later centuries, did it use Greek on its coinage.